Mexico City, the capital of the country, is located at an altitude of more than 2,200 meters in the Anaac Valley, surrounded by huge mountain ranges. The location of this city is amazing. Two majestic snow-capped volcanoes, Popocatépetl and Iztaccíhuatl, stand above towers over 5,000 meters high. Since the Spanish conquistadors built the new city on the ruins of the old Aztec metropolis of Tenochtitlán.
Pre-Colombian art and architecture exists only in isolated sculptures and museum replicas, but the city is a myriad of reminders of its past. Some of the finest Baroque churches and palaces built during this early colonial period survive.
Mexico City is large in both population and area, but the city’s top tourist attractions and favorites are in the UNESCO World Heritage-listed 15-square-kilometer historic center of the city (Centro Histórico de la Ciudad). It contains more than 1,400 important buildings from the 16th to the 19th centuries. For travelers, this is one of the best places in Mexico. The city’s Aztec origins and examples of Spanish colonization are all within walking distance.
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National Museum of Anthropology
One of the most important in the world, the National Museum of Anthropology is hard to miss because of the huge uniform numbers marking its entrance to Chapultepec Park. Built in 1964 and a remarkable success, this example of modern architecture is notable for its magnificent display of ancient art treasures from India. Especially in the central courtyard there is a huge stone shelter with 11-meter-high columns. The waterfall symbolizes the eternal cycle of life. As grand as the building itself is, there are archaeological finds of India’s extinct Indian culture and details of modern Indian life in Mexico. Other highlights include the National Library of Anthropology, created in 1831 by Lucas Alaman and developed by Emperor Maximilian, with a rare volume.
Great Pyramid of Tenochtitlán in Mexico city.
Despite widespread destruction after the defeat of the Aztecs, important historical sites have been excavated and exhibited in recent years. The most important place is Templo Mayor.
The ruins of a great temple in Tenochtitlán, the first artifact discovered in 1978, contains a finely carved discover 3 meters in diameter and weighing 8.5 tons. Additional excavations, such as the summit platform of an early pyramid with preserved temple walls, and the skulls of sacrificial victims, reveal that the Aztecs and their predecessors constructed the temple buildings 11 times.
A highlight of the visit is the walkway through the aristocratic “winged warrior” precinct, where multicolored backed residential artifacts have been unearthed along with evidence of ingenious paintwork. Hot Tip: Many of the artifacts and artifacts uncovered are housed in both museums. The Museum of Templo Market was built on the site of a temple, and nearby the National Museum of Anthropology is widely considered to be Mexico’s most important museum.
Zócalo, Mexico city.
In the heart of Mexico City, Zócalo – Constitucia Square (Constitution Square) – is where the country’s first constitution was proclaimed in 1813.
Measuring about 240 meters in each direction, it is one of the largest squares in the world and placed almost immediately after the conquest of the former Aztec city of Tenochtitlán, its abbreviation. During the early colonial period, the square served a variety of purposes, including a bullfighting arena and market, but today it is used for festivals, parades, and demonstrations.
Three of the city’s most visited attractions include the National Palace, the Metropolitan Cathedral, and the Templo Market Aztec relics – Zócalo is the perfect place to explore this historic city.
Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral, Mexico city.
Dominating Plaza Zócalo, the Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral (Catedral Metropolitana de la Asunción de María) is one of the oldest and largest churches in the Western Hemisphere.
Constructed on top of an old Aztec temple district, construction of this massive basalt and gray sandstone structure began in 1525 and is over 250 years old. Despite its two neoclassical towers and other features, the façade creates a baroque impression with massive, twisted columns.
Outstanding features are the statues of Faith, Hope, and Charity in the bell tower added in 1793 and the clock tower built in 1813. The interior of the cathedral is a mix of different styles, and the richly carved altarpiece (Altar de los Reyes) was built in 1739 with a fine devotional painting by the Assumption (Asunción de María) to which the cathedral was dedicated. There is also a chapel containing the remains of the Mexican emperor Agustin de Iturbide and a chapel with many tombs of the city’s archbishops. Among them was Juan de Zumárraga, the great teacher of the Indians and the first among them.
Palace of Fine Arts at Mexico city.
One of Mexico City’s most important cultural attractions, the Palace of Fine Arts (Palacio de Bellas Artes) is an architectural gem. Across the adjacent park, this massive marble building, designed by Italian architect Adamo Boari with Art Nouveau and Art Deco influences, was completed in 1934 and was so heavy that parts were removed to brighten it up. I tried, but it’s a huge dome. The palace serves as an opera house and concert hall, hosting a variety of traditional and international dance and opera works. However, many visitors have drawn from the likes of Diego Rivera, David Alfaro Siqueiros, and José Clemente. You’ll find impressive murals admiring the upholstery of famous artists such as the fourth floor features rotating exhibits on the Museo Nacional de Arquitectura contemporary architecture.
Forbidden City | Mexico city.
Nestled east of Mexico City’s main square, Zócalo, is the expansive National Palace (Palacio Nacional), built of reddish tezontle stone and boasting a 200-metre-long façade, is the official residence of the President. Built over the Aztec palace, it was the seat of the Spanish viceroys during the colonial period and has changed and enlarged a lot over the years.
One of the city’s oldest and finest buildings, the city houses the Liberty Bell, which rings on September 15, 1810, at the start of the War of Independence (the anniversary of this event each year). The palace boasts many handsome rooms arranged around 14 courtyards, some accessible to visitors, and most notably the arcade-style Grand Courtyard with fine frescoes depicting the country’s rich history. Don’t miss it. A mural by Diego Rivera adorns the historic Grand Staircase of Mexico. An English-speaking guided tour explores the museum, several large halls, and the Chambers of Parliament where the 1857 Reformed Constitution (1917 and 1917 Constitutions are on display). Other attractions here are the National Archives, important historical documents and Biblioteca Miguel Lerdo de Tejada, one of the country’s largest libraries.
Paseo de la Reforma and the Angel of Independence.
Mexico City’s main east-west transport artery, Paseo de la Reforma, extends 15 kilometers from Tlatelolco to the residential district of Las Lomas, but runs from Avenida Benito Juárez to Chapultepec Park. This charming boulevard stretches to 60 m and has a pleasant green stripe in the middle, featuring busts and monuments to numerous national heroes. Now widely known as a busy entertainment and shopping district, this majestic street during the reign of Emperor Maximilian is home to numerous attractions. The Monument to Independence (Monumento a la Independencia), also known as the tall El Angel, this winged statue of Victory stands atop 36 meters high. In addition to fine statues of heroes of the independence movement, there are tombs that contain many of the country’s most important historical figures.
National History Museum, Mexico city.
One of Mexico City’s world-class tourist attractions is the National Museum of History (Museum of History). Housed in the 18th-century Chapultepec Castle (Castillo de Chapultepec), the museum was once home to Aztec buildings and a Spanish hermitage, opened in 1944 and is home to impressive pre-Columbian materials and old replicas. It offers manuscripts as well as various exhibits showing the history of Mexico after the Spanish conquest. Highlights include weapons and armor, documents, maps, and events during and immediately after the conquest. pottery, clothing, jewelry, and coins from the 3rd century; relics and memorabilia of the struggle for independence and revolutionary wars; The best portraits in Mexican history; There are several main carriages, including those used by Emperors Benito Juárez and Maximilian. Also occupied by Maximilian and Charlotte, the apartments decorated in a neo-classical style and feature furniture imported from Europe. The castle offers beautiful views of the city.
Museum of Coyoacán & Frida Kahlo.
Coyoacán is one of oldest neighborhoods of Mexico City. Spend some time exploring the old quarries, colonial mansions, and hidden squares like San Juan Bautista, and stroll through the maze of alleyways. You can also try exotic fruits and vegetables at the market. One of the town’s top tourist attractions is the Frida Kahlo Museum in The Blue House, the birthplace of the famous Mexican artist. Here you can see her most important paintings and the work of her famous husband, mural artist Diego Rivera, as well as personal items from her married life. It is best to buy tickets in advance.
Cathedral of Our Lady of Guadalupe.
First opened in 1531, the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe (Basílica de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe), said to have attracted pilgrims, attracts millions of visitors and pilgrims every year on the feast day of December 12. Built adjacent to the hill on which the Virgin Mary appeared, the building consists of a complex of buildings overlooking a large public square adorned with a variety of interesting contemporary sculptures, including a large concrete cross with distinctive clocks and chimes. Sights include the 16th-century Old Basilica, with its ornate altar decorations dedicated to Mary, and the new Basilica de Guadalupe, built in 1976 and boasting a distinctive modern curved façade.
Beautifully maintained park with many fountains and sculptures, built in 1592 on what was once a busy Aztec market. Especially at Christmas, it remains a bustling place when beautifully lit and decorated. There is a nice place next to the park. The Palacio de Bellas Artes hosts important art exhibitions as well as music and theater performances.
The Bosque de Chapultepec is Mexico City’s main park and the largest, with an area of more than four square kilometers. Once home to the Toltecs, the Aztecs settled here in 1200 AD, and legend has it that they laid out the park in the early 15th century. Over time, the hill became the summer residence of the Aztec rulers, and it got its spring water from a spring that delivers via aqueduct to the temple district of the capital, which can still be seen at Avenida Chapultepec. Portraits of the Aztec rulers were carved on the slopes of the hills, and the rest can still be seen.
Nowadays, the park is famous for its lakes, sports facilities, botanical gardens, and museums. The National Museum of History and the National Museum of Anthropology are here – with numerous fun events including concerts and theater performances. Also of interest is the Museum of Modern Art (Museo de Arte Moderno), which opened in 1964 and has played an important role in retrospectives of Mexican art in the colonial and post-colonial period, as well as in the collection of sculptures and sculptures by Mexican artists of the 19th and 20th centuries. The Chapultepec Zoo is also home to an amazing variety of animals from all over the world.
Cultural Square and Santiago de Tatelolco.
Another important historical square in Mexico City is the Plaza de las Tres Culturas (Plaza de las Tres Culturas).
This square occupies the main square of the Pre-Columbian town of Tlatelolco and the site of the last desperate scene of the Aztecs in 1521.
It is an event that the monument remembers. An interesting mix of buildings from three different periods: Aztec pyramids and temples, Spanish churches, and modern tower blocks.
In addition to the main pyramids, other Aztec ruins contain many smaller pyramids, platforms, steps, walls, and altars, and there are fine reliefs of the “tzompantli”, skull walls, and covers of the Aztec calendar. The square is also home to Memorial 68, a rather chilling memorial museum commemorating the tragic murder of 250 protesting students by government forces in 1968.
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